B1. Students will explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on velocity.

B1.1 explain that a nonzero net force causes a change in velocity

B1.2 apply Newton’s first law of motion to explain, qualitatively, an object’s state of rest or

uniform motion

B1.3 apply Newton’s second law of motion to explain, qualitatively, the relationships among net force, mass and acceleration

B1.4 apply Newton’s third law of motion to explain, qualitatively, the interaction between two objects, recognizing that the two forces, equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, do not act on the same object

B1.5 explain, qualitatively and quantitatively, static and kinetic forces of friction acting on an object

B1.6 calculate the resultant force, or its constituents, acting on an object by adding vector

components graphically and algebraically

B1.7 apply Newton’s laws of motion to solve, algebraically, linear motion problems in horizontal, vertical and inclined planes near the surface of Earth, ignoring air resistance.

B1.8 explain that the goal of technology is to provide solutions to practical problems, that

technological development includes testing and evaluating designs and prototypes on the

basis of established criteria, and that the products of technology cannot solve all problems

B1.9 explain that science and technology are developed to meet societal needs and that society

provides direction for scientific and technological development

B1.10 explain that scientific knowledge and theories develop through hypotheses, the collection of evidence, investigation and the ability to provide explanations

B1.11 formulate questions about observed relationships and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

• identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems

B1.12 conduct investigations into relationships among observable variables and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

• conduct experiments to determine relationships among force, mass and acceleration,

using available technologies

• research the use of kinematics and dynamics principles in everyday life

B1.13 analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

• analyze a graph of empirical data to infer the mathematical relationships among force, mass and acceleration

• use free-body diagrams to describe the forces acting on an object

B1.14 work collaboratively in addressing problems and apply the skills and conventions of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results

• select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical or linguistic modes of representation to communicate findings and conclusions

B2. Students will explain that gravitational effects extend throughout the universe.

B2.1 identify the gravitational force as one of the fundamental forces in nature

B2.2 describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, Newton’s law of universal gravitation

B2.3 explain, qualitatively, the principles pertinent to the Cavendish experiment used to determine the universal gravitational constant, G

B2.4 define the term “field” as a concept that replaces “action at a distance” and apply the

concept to describe gravitational effects

B2.5 relate, qualitatively and quantitatively, using Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the

gravitational constant to the local value of the acceleration due to gravity

B2.6 predict, quantitatively, differences in the weight of objects on different planets

B2.7 explain that concepts, models and theories are often used in interpreting and explaining observations and in predicting future observations

B2.8 formulate questions about observed relationships and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

• identify, define and delimit questions to investigate;

B2.9 conduct investigations into relationships among observable variables and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

• determine, empirically, the local value of the acceleration due to gravity

• explore the relationship between the local value of the acceleration due to gravity and

the gravitational field strength

B1.10 analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

• list the limitations of mass-weight determinations at different points on Earth’s surface

• treat acceleration due to gravity as uniform near Earth’s surface

B1.11 work collaboratively in addressing problems and apply the skills and conventions of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results

• select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical or linguistic modes of representation to communicate findings and conclusions